Is West Nile vaccine safe for pregnant mares?
Like most vaccines, West Nile Innovator is not labeled for use in pregnant mares, but many veterinarians decide the benefits of vaccinating them outweigh the risks. An adverse reaction could threaten the mare’s life, and in that case, the fetus or embryo may be at risk, Dr. Bigbie said.
When should a pregnant horse be vaccinated?
Pregnant mares should be vaccinated against Equine Herpes Virus (EHV or Rhinopneumonitis virus) at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation, with many veterinarians recommending vaccinating at 3 months of gestation as well.
When should horses be vaccinated for West Nile?
Because of the high mortality associated with West Nile virus, it is recommended that foals born in areas where there is a high risk of exposure to West Nile virus should receive an initial series of three (3) doses of vaccine against West Nile beginning at 3 months of age and at 4- to 6- week intervals.
Can a vaccinated horse get West Nile?
Vaccination is the most effective way to help protect horses against West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne diseases, such as Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE). If vaccinated, horses have shown to be 30 times less likely to contract West Nile virus.
Is West Nile virus contagious in horses?
The virus is transmitted from avian reservoir hosts by mosquitoes (and infrequently by other bloodsucking insects) to horses, humans and a number of other mammals. Horses and humans are considered to be dead-end hosts for WNV; the virus is not directly contagious from horse to horse or horse to human.
How is West Nile transmitted to horses?
WNV is maintained in nature in a transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes. Horses are dead-end hosts meaning they do not transmit the infection to other horses. Mosquitos, primarily the Culex species, acquire the virus from infected birds and transmit it to susceptible horses, humans, and other animals.
Where did West Nile virus come from?
West Nile Virus (WNV) was first isolated in a woman in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937. It was identified in birds (crows and columbiformes) in Nile delta region in 1953.
How do they test for West Nile in horses?
Diagnostic tests Though several serological tests may be used to diagnose West Nile virus, the most reliable test for clinically ill horses is the IgM capture ELISA. The IgM capture ELISA can confirm recent exposure to the virus. The IgM antibody rises quickly after exposure but is relatively short lived.
How is West Nile virus treated in horses?
Because there is no cure for WNV, treatment is primarily directed towards managing inflammation and clinical signs. Since horses cannot be “carriers” or transmit the disease, quarantine is not part of treatment for horses with WNV.
How common is West Nile in horses?
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects humans and other animals, of which horses represent 96.9% of reported non-human cases.