Are aflatoxins and mycotoxins the same?

Are aflatoxins and mycotoxins the same?

Aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are produced by molds of the Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins are among the most well-known mycotoxins due to their high level of toxicity in many animals and people.

How does aflatoxin get into pet food?

Dogs generally get aflatoxin poisoning through eating contaminated foods. This can be caused by homemade foods (6), commercial pet foods (7), or even something that a dog has scavenged on a walk. Aflatoxin poisonings often occur in outbreaks, because one moldy batch of food can be eaten by many pets.

Do mycotoxins cause food poisoning?

Mold on food According to the World Health Organization (WHO) , mycotoxins can cause severe, adverse health effects, such as: acute poisoning.

What foods are most prone to aflatoxin contamination?

Commodities such as corn, peanuts, pistachio, Brazil nuts, copra, and coconut are highly prone to contamination by aflatoxin (Idris et al., 2010; Cornea et al., 2011), whereas wheat, oats, millet, barley, rice, cassava, soybeans, beans, pulses, and sorghum are usually resistant to aflatoxin contamination.

How do I get rid of mycotoxins?

Sodium Hypochlorite has been found to kill trichothecene and other mycotoxins. Extreme heat (fire at 500°F for half-hour) can destroy trichothecene mycotoxins. Ozone can kill most mycotoxins, but the level needed is not safe for humans. HEPA air filters need to be supplemented with activated carbon filters.

What foods are high in mycotoxins?

Mycotoxins appear in almost all kinds of animal feed and products such as wheat bran, noug cake, pea hulls, maize grain, milk and meat, and also human food such as cereal, fruit and vegetables, spice, etc. [5]. Consuming these foods creates serious health risks in human and all animal species.

What happens if you eat aflatoxins?

Large doses of aflatoxins lead to acute poisoning (aflatoxicosis) that can be life threatening, usually through damage to the liver. Outbreaks of acute liver failure (jaundice, lethargy, nausea, death), identified as aflatoxicosis, have been observed in human populations since the 1960s.

How do you remove aflatoxin from your body?

The most common way to remove AFB1 using physical methods is to heat and use gamma rays. Aflatoxins are highly thermostable. Studies have shown that AFB1 levels are significantly reduced by heating at 100 and 150°C for 90 minutes, respectively, at 41.9 and 81.2%.

How do you treat mycotoxin exposure?

Except for supportive therapy (e.g., diet, hydration), there are almost no treatments for mycotoxin exposure, although Fink-Gremmels (80) described a few methods for veterinary management of mycotoxicoses, and there is some evidence that some strains of Lactobacillus effectively bind dietary mycotoxins (72, 73).

How do you remove aflatoxin?

How do you detox your body from mold?

Look in your basement or crawlspace for any standing water or dampness. If you find traces of mold or dampness, you need to scrub the area with a mixture of bleach and water. Then, place fans in the area to dry the dampness. It can take 24 to 48 hours to properly ventilate and dry the area.

What are symptoms of mold toxicity?

What are the symptoms of mold exposure?

  • coughing.
  • wheezing.
  • nose stuffiness.
  • red or itchy eyes.
  • skin rash.
  • sore throat.

What are the side effects of aflatoxin exposure?

Aflatoxin toxicity has been well established in both humans and animals. Aflatoxin exposure can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, convulsions acutely, and its chronic exposure can also lead to various complications like hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and teratogenicity.

Which is the most potent aflatoxin in the body?

Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) and aflatoxin B2(AFB2) are produced by both A. flavusand A. parasiticus, and AFB1 is believed to be the most potent among all aflatoxins. Aflatoxin M1(AFM1) is found in the fermentation broth of A parasiticus, but it and aflatoxin M2 are also developed when an infected liver metabolizes AFB1 and AFB2.

How did aflatoxin get its name Turkey X disease?

Aflatoxin toxicity occurs due to acute or chronic exposure to aflatoxin. The term “aflatoxin” is derived from the name of Aspergillus flavus. It was named around 1960 after its discovery as the source of a disease in turkey called “turkey X disease” in turkeys fed rations of peanuts and cottonseed.

How long does aflatoxin in pet food last?

Sub-acute aflatoxicosis (0.5–1 mg aflatoxin/kg pet food) is characterized by anorexia, lethargy, jaundice, intravascular coagulation and death in 2–3 weeks. Similar hepatotoxic effects can also be produced by chronic aflatoxin exposure with 0.05–0.3 mg aflatoxin/kg pet food over 6–8 weeks.

How are mycotoxins and pet food are linked?

Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and fusaric acid have been found in the ingredients and final products of pet food, resulting in both acute toxicity and chronic health problems in pets. Toxicological interaction among mycotoxins as a natural mixture further complicates the issue.

How are mycotoxins used in a risk assessment?

The concepts of “risk assessment”, using hazard identification, dose–response assessment, no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), should be applied to assess the risk and safety of mycotoxins in pet food, thereby instilling public confidence in the pet food industry. 1. Introduction

Why are aflatoxins dangerous to humans and animals?

Aflatoxins are potent toxins and known carcinogens, so their levels in food should be limited to the lowest practical level. Aflatoxins are also known to cause liver damage and liver failure in animals.