How long does it take for diarrhea to go away in dogs?

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How long does it take for diarrhea to go away in dogs?

If your dog is healthy and has a strong immune system, these natural solutions should resolve the diarrhea in 2 or 3 days. If your dog still has diarrhea and seems sick … work with your holistic vet to find out why.

When to call the vet if your dog has diarrhea?

If your dog’s diarrhea persists after 2-3 days it may be more than just tummy troubles and it’s time to call the vet. No one said that being a dog owner was going to be easy.

What can cause diarrhea in a younger dog?

Infections– Viral or bacterial infections can also cause diarrhea and also occur more frequently in younger dogs. Dietary indiscretion or diet change– A purposeful change in diet from one food to another as well as eating something new/inappropriate (from bacon to grass to rocks) can cause irritation or trauma, resulting in diarrhea.

How can I prevent my dog from having diarrhea?

You may not be able to totally prevent diarrhea, but knowing as much as possible about it might help limit the number times your dog has one of these unpleasant episodes and reduce the duration when the runs do come. There are significant differences between the way dogs and people digest food.

If your dog is healthy and has a strong immune system, these natural solutions should resolve the diarrhea in 2 or 3 days. If your dog still has diarrhea and seems sick … work with your holistic vet to find out why.

When to seek help for a dog with diarrhea?

Most dogs will not last this long, so if your dog has more than 24 hours of diarrhea, it is worth seeking the help and advice of a professional. What are the Causes of Diarrhea in Dogs?

What does it look like when a dog has diarrhea?

Dogs with large intestinal diarrhea tend to pass smaller-than-normal amounts of semi-formed stool that may be covered in or contain mucus. Dogs typically strain to defecate in addition to passing feces much more frequently than normal. If blood is present, it’s usually bright red and fresh looking.

Can a commercial dog treat lead to diarrhea?

Furthermore, too many commercial dog treats can also lead to diarrhea. Treats should be given sparingly, not multiple times a day. They should also be of high quality (i.e. all-natural, non-GMO, and soy-free like Honest Paws Bites ).

Most dogs will not last this long, so if your dog has more than 24 hours of diarrhea, it is worth seeking the help and advice of a professional. What are the Causes of Diarrhea in Dogs?

Furthermore, too many commercial dog treats can also lead to diarrhea. Treats should be given sparingly, not multiple times a day. They should also be of high quality (i.e. all-natural, non-GMO, and soy-free like Honest Paws Bites ).

Why does my dog have diarrhea when I change food?

Abruptly changing from one type or brand of food to another is likely to cause some stomach problems with most dogs and serious diarrhea in those that are more sensitive. If you need to switch your dog’s food, you need to do so slowly.

Abruptly changing from one type or brand of food to another is likely to cause some stomach problems with most dogs and serious diarrhea in those that are more sensitive. If you need to switch your dog’s food, you need to do so slowly.

In fact, many acute diarrhea cases will resolve on their own or with basic home care in one to two days. If your dog had one somewhat soft stool but is otherwise playful and eating normally, you can wait to see what the next bowel movement looks like before taking further action.

How long does diarrhea last in a dog?

Diarrhea in dogs can occur suddenly and last as long as a day or two up to a few weeks or months. If your dog’s diarrhea persists for more than a day, dehydration can be a concern. Diarrhea that lasts longer can be an indication that your dog has an underlying health issue. So, what are some of the reasons your dog may have diarrhea? 1.

What can I give my Dog for diarrhea?

Dewormers commonly used include Panacur®, Drontal®, and Dolpac®. There are some probiotics and supplements that can be very helpful for dogs experiencing diarrhea. As the quality and effectiveness of probiotics and supplements are not always known, it is always recommended to ask your veterinarian before giving your dog anything of this nature.

Why does dose my Dog have diarrhea after deworming?

Why dose my dog have diarrhea and vomiting after getting the deworming shot on the 22. It could be from the dead worms moving through Stich’s GI tract, but it could have another cause such as a GI illness. Whenever a dog is both vomiting and having diarrhea, it’s time to see a vet. 1 Person found this answer helpful.

Which is the best medicine for diarrhea in dogs?

Metronidazole (brand name Flagyl®) and tylosin (brand name Tylan®) are commonly prescribed anti-diarrheal agents that decrease the intestinal inflammation that often leads to diarrhea. Dewormers commonly used include Panacur®, Drontal®, and Dolpac®.

If your dog’s diarrhea persists after 2-3 days it may be more than just tummy troubles and it’s time to call the vet. No one said that being a dog owner was going to be easy.

How long does it take for diarrhea to resolve in a dog?

Diarrhea itself is not an illness, but rather a sign of an underlying health issue. Most cases of diarrhea resolve within 48 hours. However, this depends on the underlying cause. The cause of diarrhea can be something as simple as an upset digestive tract.

What to do if your dog doesn’t have diarrhea?

Just because you don’t see them having diarrhea doesn’t mean that they are not having diarrhea. If you notice that your dog is suffering from diarrhea and he is otherwise acting normally, then the first thing you want to do is hold him off food for 12 hours.

What causes long-term diarrhea in a dog?

Causes of Diarrhea (Long-term) in Dogs 1 Canine distemper. 2 Canine parvovirus. 3 Canine coronavirus. 4 Irritable bowel disease (though diarrhea is not breed specific, the Basenji, for example,… 5 Systemic illness. 6 (more items)

How to tell if your dog has small intestinal diarrhea?

With small intestinal diarrhea, you’re likely to see large amounts of stool that range from very watery to semi-formed. Defecation frequency is often normal, but could be slightly increased. Stool that is extremely dark or black suggests bleeding may be occurring in the stomach or the first part of the small intestine.

Diarrhea can occur suddenly (acute), last for weeks to months (chronic) or occur off and on (intermittent). It depends on the underlying cause. Dogs develop diarrhea for many different reasons.

In many cases, diarrhea will resolve after a few days of home treatment, but it’s a good idea to give your vet a call if it continues for a long period or has any one of several signs that may point to a serious problem.

What causes a dog to have a lot of diarrhea?

Large intestinal abnormalities which can cause diarrhea include: Your veterinarian will try to identify the origin of the diarrhea — the small or large intestine — by taking a complete history of your dog’s health and onset of symptoms.

How to treat stress induced diarrhea in dogs?

Feed small, frequent meals that help heal the GI tract but do not overwhelm it. In the case of stress-induced diarrhea, starting a fiber supplement a few days prior to the stressful event can help prevent the diarrhea from starting.

What should I do if my dog has diarrhea?

The first is to let it run its course. Dogs with acute diarrhea can safely be treated at home. The second is to provide a supplement or medication to ease the issue. Of course, the main thing that pet parents must figure out is the cause of the dog’s diarrhea in the first place.

Dogs with large intestinal diarrhea tend to pass smaller-than-normal amounts of semi-formed stool that may be covered in or contain mucus. Dogs typically strain to defecate in addition to passing feces much more frequently than normal. If blood is present, it’s usually bright red and fresh looking.

Is it dangerous for a dog to have diarrhea and vomiting?

Any temperature of 103.5 F or higher is considered feverish. Take note if diarrhea is combined with vomiting. Vomiting and diarrhea is a dangerous combination because the dog is losing fluid at both ends. This puts him at risk of dehydration. This is especially worrying if the dog is unable to drink and hold fluids down.

When should you worry about Doggy diarrhea?

If your dog is experiencing diarrhea with any other symptom like vomiting, having low energy, lack of appetite, or acting different in any way, contact your vet for an appointment right away. You should also go see your vet if your dog’s diarrhea continues for more than a day or you don’t know why he’s experiencing troubles.

Is it normal for a my Dog to get diarrhea?

Occasional diarrhea is not considered to be normal. If your dog has diarrhea off and on for more than a week or two, you should schedule an appointment with your vet.

When does the Puppy have diarrhea you should do?

If your pooch is showing signs of diarrhea for more than 24 hours, or he is displaying secondary symptoms (such as vomiting, fever, dark-colored or bloody stools, decreased appetite, sudden weight loss, and/or straining to defecate), contact your veterinary office immediately to rule out any serious underlying health conditions.

Can dogs die from diarrhea?

Some diarrhea in dogs may die out on their own. However, others would require serious treatment like conducting a surgery. Serious diarrhea conditions like blood in the stool accompanied by acute pain and straining is a dangerous situation for your dog. This is in particular for the small dogs.

How long will diarrhea after changing food last?

How Long Will It Last? Generally speaking, the diarrhea from switching foods should not last longer than 3 or 4 days at the very most. In some cases it may take up a full week for some dogs to adjust to the new food, but that is really pushing it. For the most part, dogs will adjust to their new food in 2 or 3 days.

Why does my dog not poop after diarrhea?

In essence, if you observe that your dog is not pooping after diarrhea, then you should not be worried so much because that is most likely to happen. Technically, diarrhea results in stomach knots that may make your dog stop defecating.

In many cases, diarrhea will resolve after a few days of home treatment, but it’s a good idea to give your vet a call if it continues for a long period or has any one of several signs that may point to a serious problem.

When to take your dog to the vet for mucus in stool?

It’s time for a vet appointment if your dog has abnormal amounts of mucus in their stool over an extended period of time, or if your dog has additional symptoms, such as: 1 Poor appetite 2 Weight loss 3 Vomiting 4 Diarrhea

It’s time for a vet appointment if your dog has abnormal amounts of mucus in their stool over an extended period of time, or if your dog has additional symptoms, such as: 1 Poor appetite 2 Weight loss 3 Vomiting 4 Diarrhea

Why does my dog have yellow stool with diarrhea?

Poop moving through the GI tract too quickly to pick up bile. Bile makes poop brown. You may see yellow stools with acute or chronic diarrhea. This usually means your dog ate something with food coloring in it. Or the poop may contain small amounts of blood. This is an acute issue that will often resolve with fasting and a bland diet.

Are there any natural remedies for diarrhea in dogs?

4 Natural Remedies For Dog Diarrhea. 1. Fasting: An Important First Step. Most animals will fast themselves when they have digestive disease and it’s a good idea to stop feeding your dog if he doesn’t fast himself. You can start with 6 to 12 hours of no food or water with most dogs.

Can a 2 year old dog have diarrhea?

In dogs under 2 years old and especially in puppies, any time’ diarrhea is a symptom, canine parvovirus must be considered as a possible cause. This viral disease is extremely serious, and often fatal without intensive medical care.

What to do if your dog has watery diarrhea?

However, in most cases if a dog has watery diarrhea (i.e. there is mostly water and just a small amount of fecal material in the stool) it should be considered a medical emergency.

What does it mean when a senior dog has diarrhea?

Senior dogs and puppies are at a higher risk. Lack of appetite indicates something is very wrong. When a dog doesn’t want to eat, we need to pay attention! Diarrhea is the body’s natural way of trying to get rid of something irritating. We don’t want to stop the body’s own ability to purge, but we can’t let diarrhea go on for too long.

How to know if your dog has diarrhea?

However, the following red flags are all reasons to take things more seriously: 1 Loss of appetite or thirst 2 Lethargy / depression 3 Pain/discomfort 4 Blood in the stool (either dark, blackish stool or visible, frank, red blood) 5 Associated vomiting 6 Reduced or absent urinations

Is it common for dogs to have diarrhea?

Diarrhea is a very common ailment for canines, and can range from a mild case to very severe. Described as frequent, liquid stools, diarrhea can be secondary to serious illnesses such as cancer, or milder causes like an intestinal infection.

How to treat acute small intestinal diarrhea in dogs?

Some protocols can be followed at home, with the direction and support of your veterinarian. For example, acute small intestinal diarrhea can be treated by withholding food for 12 to 48 hours (but never water).

Poop moving through the GI tract too quickly to pick up bile. Bile makes poop brown. You may see yellow stools with acute or chronic diarrhea. This usually means your dog ate something with food coloring in it. Or the poop may contain small amounts of blood. This is an acute issue that will often resolve with fasting and a bland diet.

Why does my dog keep having diarrhea?

As with vomiting, dogs use diarrhea to flush toxins or infectious agents from the GIT in order to prevent more serious illness. Some of the most common causes of diarrhea in dogs are dietary indiscretion (overeating or eating spoiled food) and stress (often seen after a period of kennelling).

What to feed a dog with diarrhea?

Like bananas, apples are another great option for what to feed a dog with diarrhea or other tummy upsets. Apples are an excellent source of pectin to alleviate loose stool and soothe the intestines.

What causes vomiting and diarrhea in adult dogs?

Coronavirus is a very common viral infection in dogs that causes liquid, yellow-orange diarrhea as well as vomiting, lethargy, and, occasionally, fever. Most adult dogs won’t show any symptoms at all and those that do usually get over them in a few days.

Why does my dog have intermittent diarrhea?

The reasons your dog or cat gets diarrhea are numerous and varied. Most often the cause is dietary indiscretion, which is a fancy term for when your pet eats something she shouldn’t, causing GI upset. A sudden change in diet can also cause diarrhea. Parasites can cause intermittent GI upset and loose stools.

What causes continuous diarrhea in dogs?

There are several main causes of dog diarrhea including poor or incorrect diet, bacteria, parasites such as roundworms, viruses, stress, and eating garbage, human food or stale food.

Can table food give Dogs diarrhea?

Essentially, if you feed your dog a lot of table scraps, indigestible foods or foods that upset their stomach. This can be the cause of acute diarrhea in dogs. Additionally, some dogs may have food intolerances, that is allergies to certain ingredients like chicken or grains, this too can result in diarrhea.

What is treatment for dog diarrhea?

Common medication prescribed to stop canine diarrhea include: Metronidazole, which is an antibiotic treatment, suitable if the diarrhea is caused by an infection Kaolin or pectin is a medication that can be administered if the dog has ingested garbage or a toxic ingredient.

What should I do if my dog is vomiting and has diarrhea?

On average, a dog should drink about 1 ounce of water (1/8 cup) per pound of body weight each day. This requirement will be significantly increased if your dog is vomiting or has diarrhea. Ensure that your dog is allowed quiet time to rest and fully recover.

Is it dangerous for a dog to have diarrhea?

Doggy diarrhea isn’t just messy though – it’s also potentially worrying and dangerous, as it could point to a health concern. On other occasions, however, it may just be a simple matter of what enters your dog’s body needing to make its way out – and that’s not always pretty.

What food to feed dog with diarrhea?

Like bananas, apples are another great option for what to feed a dog with diarrhea or other tummy upsets. Apples are an excellent source of pectin to alleviate loose stool and soothe the intestines. Opt for applesauce, which is far easier to digest than raw apples, and be sure to use only plain, unsweetened products.

What medications cause dog diarrhea?

“Diarrhea can also be a common side effect of some pet medications, including antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and heart medications,” says Dr. Benson. “Further complicating matters, some pets also experience diarrhea as a result of excitement or stress.”.

What happens when a dog has diarrhea and vomiting?

Take note if diarrhea is combined with vomiting. Vomiting and diarrhea is a dangerous combination because the dog is losing fluid at both ends. This puts him at risk of dehydration. This is especially worrying if the dog is unable to drink and hold fluids down.

What’s the difference between small and large bowel diarrhea in dogs?

Dogs with large bowel diarrhea poop far more frequently than dogs with small bowel diarrhea. While one is not likely of a more significant concern than the other, identifying where the problem originates is essential for determining the diagnosis and treatment plan.

How do I treat diarrhea in a dog?

Always take your dog in for a checkup when he has diarrhea. It can be a sign of something more serious. Once you get an otherwise clean bill of health, you can treat the diarrhea at home. Plenty of fluids, a mild diet, probiotics and medications are all things you can offer to nurse him back to health.

Is diareha normal for a dog after surgery?

Dog vomiting and diarrhea may occur following surgery as a side effect of any medications your dog may be taking. However, be sure to discuss the side effects of post-op medications with your vet, because vomiting and diarrhea are not common after dog surgery. Post-op vomiting and diarrhea are usually not normal .

If the diarrhea appears to be the large-volume, small-bowel-type, then your dog will likely benefit from at least some supplemental fluid and electrolyte administration, and probably other anti-diarrheal medications. With large bowel diarrhea, your dog may be supremely uncomfortable and the continued straining will only make the irritation worse.

Can you have diarrhea for more than 3 days?

Diarrhea doesn’t last for more than 3 days in most cases. And now that it has, you must work out with your doctor why it happened. A. There are 9 foods you can eat to cure diarrhea if you have it for more than three days now.

What are the symptoms of diarrhea in a dog?

Depending on where the diarrhea is coming from anatomically, clinical signs can vary. That said, the treatment is usually pretty similar. Common symptoms seen along with diarrhea include: Ruh-rohs and meow-ches happen! Help your fur baby get the best care possible with Pumpkin Pet Insurance. Best-in-class coverage for accidents and illnesses!

What can I give my Dog for chronic diarrhea?

For more chronic diarrhea , Gut Guard is a better choice, with anti-inflammatory herbs and proteins. Start your dog on probiotics as soon as you see symptoms and continue the probiotics for several weeks after symptoms resolve. They can also be given long-term to help prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

When to worry if your dog has diarrhea?

If your dog has diarrhea, then you’re already familiar with the signs: loose, liquid-like stool, with frequent trips outside to relieve the bowel. Diarrhea in dogs can occur suddenly and last as long as a day or two up to a few weeks or months. If your dog’s diarrhea persists for more than a day, dehydration can be a concern.

What causes a dog to have explosive diarrhea?

Less dangerous, but often more explosive diarrhea can occur when a dog eats food waste, decaying animals, or other trash. When this happens, your dog’s system will work to rid itself of the unhealthy food by expelling it by all means necessary.

For more chronic diarrhea , Gut Guard is a better choice, with anti-inflammatory herbs and proteins. Start your dog on probiotics as soon as you see symptoms and continue the probiotics for several weeks after symptoms resolve. They can also be given long-term to help prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

How long does acute and chronic diarrhea usually last?

Acute diarrhea can last anywhere from 2 days to 2 weeks. This form of diarrhea is usually mild and gets better with home remedies. Chronic diarrhea, on the other hand, may last for 4 weeks or more. It typically indicates an underlying health condition, such as ulcerative colitis or irritable bowel syndrome.

Infections– Viral or bacterial infections can also cause diarrhea and also occur more frequently in younger dogs. Dietary indiscretion or diet change– A purposeful change in diet from one food to another as well as eating something new/inappropriate (from bacon to grass to rocks) can cause irritation or trauma, resulting in diarrhea.

Feed small, frequent meals that help heal the GI tract but do not overwhelm it. In the case of stress-induced diarrhea, starting a fiber supplement a few days prior to the stressful event can help prevent the diarrhea from starting.

Why does my dog get diarrhea all the time?

Unsupervised dogs are more likely than adults to consume things outdoors that may cause gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea. Things like feces of other animals, dead animals/road kill, stagnant water, and even foreign objects, like leaves and wood chips, may all cause diarrhea in dogs.

When to change your dog’s diet for diarrhea?

When changing your pet’s diet, always do so slowly, over a period of 1-2 weeks. With most pets, abruptly stopping one kind of food and then starting a different food will cause gastrointestinal upset, resulting in diarrhea and/or vomiting.

How often should I Feed my Dog with diarrhea?

– When the dog’s diarrhea stops and they are tolerating regular portions of food, consider adding 1 tablespoon of fiber one time a day to the dog’s diet. Feed the diet for three days: In this case, even after diarrhea has stopped. On the fourth day, combine this special half-and-half with your dog’s regular food.

Why does my dog keep getting diarrhea for no reason?

Some bacteria and parasitic infections can turn to be resistance to the medications that you are administering to the dog to treat their diarrhea. When that happens, the dog keeps getting diarrhea after a few weeks an indication that the infection has re-occurred.

What are the symptoms of a dog with diarrhea?

In addition to vomiting, an infected dog may have other symptoms, including: 1 Loss of appetite 2 Diarrhea 3 Facial convulsions 4 Fever 5 Nasal discharge 6 Coughing 7 Lethargy 8 Hardening of paw pads 2

Why does my dog have recurring diarrhea after antibiotics?

Our vet could not find anything unusual in his stool so he would always prescribe the same antibiotic. After about a year, we were desperate. I found that the cause was probably giardia and gave Max a course of Panacur for 7 days and then repeated that again after 2 weeks based on the regimen of greatdanelady.com.

Why does my dog have bloody diarrhea all the time?

There are some cases where a seemingly healthy dog will suddenly experience vomiting and bloody diarrhea. This is a condition known as hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, or HGE. Other symptoms of this disturbing health issue include loss of appetite, fever, and lethargy. It’s not clear why HGE occurs, but there are several potential causes, including:

In some cases, it may not be the actual switching of the dog food that causes the diarrhea, vomiting, gassiness, and upset stomach, but the new food itself. Dogs, just like humans, can have food allergies and sensitives.

Can you give a dog Pepto?

As one of the few drugs that can be used by both humans and animals, it is safe to give your dog Pepto Bismol . It can be bought with a prescription or over the counter but it is a good idea to get a vet’s opinion before administering this medicine to your dog yourself.

Can a dog get diarrhea in a kennel?

For dogs going into boarding kennels for the first-time, it can be an assault on the senses. It’s no wonder that some dogs get stressed. In fact, there’s a name for it: boarding kennel stress. Stress can cause diarrhea and is probably the biggest risk your dog has when going into kennels.

Do you have to take your dog to the vet for diarrhea?

First, let’s talk about why you might not want to go to the vet right away. If you take your dog to a conventional vet for diarrhea, they’ll usually give you antibiotics … like Metronidazole (Flagyl). It will stop your dog’s symptoms in a few doses. The trouble is … that’s all it does. It stops symptoms without fixing the underlying issue.

What does it mean if my dog is having diarrhea?

Dogs can have diarrhea for any number of reasons. Diarrhea is a common symptom of many canine ailments. It can also mean that your dog simply has an upset stomach or ate something that disagrees with him.

What is the best home remedy for dog diarrhea?

Chicken broth is considered as an excellent home remedy for getting rid of diarrhea in dogs. It helps to boost the appetite and give you the kind of energy that you were looking out for. Furthermore, it also helps you to soothe the irritated stomach.

What should you do if your dog has diarrhea?

One or two episodes of diarrhea are not necessarily reasons to become alarmed. Some cases of diarrhea are self-limiting (meaning they resolve on their own). If your dog is still eating and drinking, that’s a good sign. Never give over-the-counter or prescription medications without your vet’s advice.

What can I do to stop my dog from having diarrhea?

You usually can stop diarrhea by giving your pet anti-diarrheal medications and feeding him a bland diet for a day or two. If his diarrhea doesn’t improve within 24 hours, call your vet. Diarrhea can indicate an underlying disease or condition. Close-up of dog drinking water from a bottle.

What should you feed a dog that has diarrhea?

One of the best things to feed your dog when he has diarrhea is white rice. In fact, it is recommended make your dog fast for 24 hours and to give him only rice water during that time.

Why does my dog have diarrhea all the time?

Some of the most common causes of diarrhea in dogs are dietary indiscretion (overeating or eating spoiled food) and stress (often seen after a period of kennelling). In addition, dog diarrhea can be caused by any problem which upsets the fine balance between fluid absorption and secretion in the GIT.

What does it mean when a dog has explosive diarrhea?

The hallmark of explosive diarrhea, as the name suggests, is the dog suddenly passes a large volume of watery stool. Should this happen, the dog has little control and may have accidents in inconvenient places. Don’t be cross with your pet pal because they can’t help it!

Is it normal for a dog to not have diarrhea?

First of all, don’t panic. It is actually quite common for a dog or cat to not produce feces for a few days after having significant diarrhea. The first couple days you might not notice – you’re just relieved to not be cleaning it up any more!

How long does it take for diarrhea to pass from dog to human?

Under normal circumstances, transit time from mouth through the small and large intestines should be under 10 hours, producing a firm, well-formed stool at the end. Dirty Dozen—Top 12 Causes of Doggie Diarrhea Many things can disrupt this well-balanced system, causing diarrhea or, less frequently, constipation.

What does diarrhea ( long-term ) in dogs mean?

What is Diarrhea (Long-term)? Diarrhea is not a disease itself, but a symptom of illness or underlying disease. The increase of the passage of loose stool can come on as an acute episode, or be a chronic occurrence. Diarrhea also means a decrease in the bodily absorption of water, electrolytes, and required nutrients.

Is it normal for a dog to not poop for 3 days?

“We treated my dog’s diarrhea, and she hasn’t pooped in 3 days. When do I worry?” These are common questions that I get asked a lot. What’s going on? First of all, don’t panic. It is actually quite common for a dog or cat to not produce feces for a few days after having significant diarrhea.

Some bacteria and parasitic infections can turn to be resistance to the medications that you are administering to the dog to treat their diarrhea. When that happens, the dog keeps getting diarrhea after a few weeks an indication that the infection has re-occurred.