What is the differential diagnosis of leukemia?

What is the differential diagnosis of leukemia?

The differential diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia includes a variety of other hematologic malignancies, specifically acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

What is the diagnostic criterion for acute leukemia?

Diagnosing AML Leukemic blast cells in bone marrow samples. The percentage of blast cells. Blasts are normally 1 to 5 percent of marrow cells. Having at least 20 percent blasts is generally required for a diagnosis of AML.

Can acute leukemia be misdiagnosed?

Usually patients present with symptoms because of cytopenias, organomegaly, lymphadenopathy and bone pain, including other skeletal abnormalities. Granular Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia (G-ALL) may be misdiagnosed as Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) because of the presence of cytoplasmic granules in the lymphoblasts.

What is the main diagnostic marker for acute leukemia?

Bone marrow test. A blood test can suggest leukemia, but it usually takes a bone marrow test to confirm the diagnosis.

What does CBC look like with leukemia?

CBC is the most useful initial laboratory test in patients suspected of having leukemia. Most patients will show some abnormality in the CBC and some blasts will be seen in the peripheral smear in patients with acute leukemias. To diagnose CLL, a lymphocytosis of greater than 5000/mm3 must be present.

What are the complications of leukemia?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia may cause complications such as:

  • Frequent infections. If you have chronic lymphocytic leukemia, you may experience frequent infections that can be serious.
  • A switch to a more aggressive form of cancer.
  • Increased risk of other cancers.
  • Immune system problems.

Do blast cells always mean leukemia?

Routine cell exams by microscope The most immature cells are called myeloblasts (or blasts). The percentage of blasts in the bone marrow or blood is particularly important. Having at least 20% blasts in the marrow or blood is generally required for a diagnosis of AML.

What are blasts in leukemia?

When a patient has leukemia, abnormal immature white blood cells (called blasts) multiply uncontrollably, filling up the bone marrow, and preventing production of other cells important for survival, namely red blood cells and platelets. This leads to infections, anemia and abnormal bleeding.

What is the life expectancy of someone with acute myeloid leukemia?

The five-year overall survival rate for AML is 27.4 percent , according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This means that of the tens of thousands of Americans living with AML, an estimated 27.4 percent are still living five years after their diagnosis.

What WBC indicates leukemia?

Effects of Too Many White Blood Cells Typically a healthy person has a white blood cell count of about 4,000-11,000. Patients with acute or even chronic leukemia may come in with a white blood cell count up into the 100,000-400,000 range.

What are signs of leukemia in blood work?

Common leukemia signs and symptoms include:

  • Fever or chills.
  • Persistent fatigue, weakness.
  • Frequent or severe infections.
  • Losing weight without trying.
  • Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen.
  • Easy bleeding or bruising.
  • Recurrent nosebleeds.
  • Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)

What are the final stages of leukemia?

End stage leukemia

  • Slow breathing with long pauses; noisy breathing with congestion.
  • Cool skin that may turn a bluish, dusky color, especially in the hands and feet.
  • Dryness of mouth and lips.
  • Decreased amount of urine.
  • Loss of bladder and bowel control.
  • Restlessness or repetitive, involuntary movements.

How are stains used to diagnose acute myeloid leukemia?

These stains cause color changes that can be seen under a microscope, which can help the doctor determine what types of cells are present. For instance, one stain will turn parts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells black, but has no effect on ALL cells.

How is acute lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed at Mayo Clinic?

Acute lymphocytic leukemia. Diagnosis. A Mayo Clinic physician talks with a man about his diagnosis. Bone marrow biopsy In a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, a doctor or nurse uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of liquid bone marrow, usually from a spot in the back of your hipbone (pelvis).

How is bone marrow aspiration used to test for leukemia?

During bone marrow aspiration, a needle is used to remove a sample of bone marrow from the hipbone or breastbone. The sample is sent to a lab for testing to look for leukemia cells. Doctors in the lab will classify blood cells into specific types based on their size, shape and other genetic or molecular features.

How is spinal fluid tested for acute lymphocytic leukemia?

Spinal fluid test. A lumbar puncture test, also called a spinal tap, may be used to collect a sample of spinal fluid — the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The sample is tested to see whether cancer cells have spread to the spinal fluid. In general, treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia falls into separate phases:

These stains cause color changes that can be seen under a microscope, which can help the doctor determine what types of cells are present. For instance, one stain will turn parts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells black, but has no effect on ALL cells.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia. Diagnosis. A Mayo Clinic physician talks with a man about his diagnosis. Bone marrow biopsy In a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, a doctor or nurse uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of liquid bone marrow, usually from a spot in the back of your hipbone (pelvis).

During bone marrow aspiration, a needle is used to remove a sample of bone marrow from the hipbone or breastbone. The sample is sent to a lab for testing to look for leukemia cells. Doctors in the lab will classify blood cells into specific types based on their size, shape and other genetic or molecular features.

Spinal fluid test. A lumbar puncture test, also called a spinal tap, may be used to collect a sample of spinal fluid — the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The sample is tested to see whether cancer cells have spread to the spinal fluid. In general, treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia falls into separate phases: